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Curricula Vitae of Scientists

To learn more about the expertise and backgrounds of CHOISE scientists, read their curricula vitae (CVs).

Matthew Beard

CHOISE Role: Director

Current Affiliation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., Physical Chemistry, Yale University, 1997-2002
  • B.S./M.S., Physical Chemistry, Brigham Young University, 1992-1997
  • NRC Postdoctoral Fellow, Optical Sciences, NIST, 2002-2003
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, NREL, 2003-2005Ph

Research and Professional Experience

  • Associate Director, Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics, NREL. Research on multiple exciton generation within quantum dots (QDs) for enhanced solar energy conversion strategies, 2011–.
  • Research Scientist, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute, U. of Colorado Boulder, 2013–. Research on electronically coupled QD arrays.
  • Principal Scientist, Chemical and Materials Sciences, NREL. Development and use of ultrafast spectroscopic probes to interfacial carrier dynamics within solar energy conversion architectures, 2015–.
  • Scientist, Chemical and Materials Sciences, NREL. Measurements of multiple exciton yields in colloidal QDs, 2008–2015.
  • Scientist, Chemical and Materials Sciences, NREL. Development and use of time-resolved THz spectroscopy (non-contact probe of conductivity) to investigate carrier generation and transport within novel solar energy systems, 2005–2008.


Kroupa, D.M., M. Voros, N. Brawand, B. McNichols, E.M. Miller, J. Gu, A.J. Nozik, A. Sellinger, G. Galli, M.C. Beard, "Tuning Colloidal Quantum Dot Band Edge Positions through Solution-Phase Surface Chemistry Modification", Nature Communications, 8, 15257, 2017 doi:10.1038/ncomms15257.

Li, Z., C. Xiao, Y. Yang, S. Harvey, D. Kim, J.A. Christians, M. Yang, P. Schulz, C-S. Jiang, J.M. Luther, J. Berry, M.C. Beard, M.M. Al-Jassim, K. Zhu, "Extrinsic ion migration in perovskite solar cells", EES, 10, 1234, 2017, doi:10.1039/c7ee00358g.

Sanehira, E.M., A.R. Marshall, J.A. Christians, S.P. Harvey, P.N. Ciesielski, L.M. Wheeler, P. Schulz, L. Y. Lin, M.C. Beard, J.M. Luther, "Enhanced mobility CsPbI2 quantum dot arrays for high efficiency, high voltage photovoltaic cells", Science Advances, 3, eaao4204, 2017, doi:10.1126/sciadv.aao4204.

Yan, Y., R. W. Crisp, J. Gu, B.D. Chernomodik, G.F. Pach, A.R. Marshall, J. A. Turner, M.C. Beard, "Multiple Exciton Generation for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution Reactions with Quantum Yields Exceeding 100%", 2, 17052, Nature Energy, 2017, doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.52.

Yang, Y., M. Yang, D.T. Moore, Y.  Yan, E.M. Miller, K. Zhu, M.C. Beard, "Top and Bottom Surfaces Limit Carrier Lifetime in Lead Iodide Perovskite Films", Nature Energy, 2, 16207, 2017, doi:10.1038/nenergy.2016.207.

Yang, Y., M. Yang, K. Zhu, J.C. Johnson, J. J. Berry, J. van de Lagemaat, and M. C. Beard, "Large Polarization-Dependent Optical Stark Effect in Lead Iodide Perovksites", Nature Comm., 7, 12613, 2016, doi:10.1038/ncomms12613.

Yang, Y., D. Ostrowski, R. France, K. Zhu, J. van de Lagemaat, J.M. Luther, M.C. Beard, "Observation of a Hot-Phonon Bottleneck in Lead Iodide Perovskites", Nature Photonics, 10, 53-59, 2016 doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2015.213.

Yang, Y., J. Gu, J.L. Young, E.M. Miller, J. Turner, N. Neale, M.C. Beard, "Semiconductor interfacial carrier dynamics via photo-induced electric fields", Science, 350, 1061-1065, 2015 doi: 10.1126/science.aad3459.

Yang, Y., Y. Yan, M. Yang, S. Choi, K. Zhu, J. M. Luther, M.C. Beard, "Low Surface Recombination Velocity in Solution-Grown CH3HN3PbBr3 Perovskite Single Crystal", Nature Comm., 6, 7961, 2015, doi: 10.1038/ncomms8961.

Yang, Y., M. Yang, Z. Li, R. Crisp, K. Zhu, M.C. Beard "Comparison of Recombination Dynamics in CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Films: Influence of Exciton Binding Energy", J. Phys. Chem. Lett.,6, 4688-4692, 2015 doi: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b02290.

Synergistic Activities

  • Program Chair, Optics in Solar Energy, OSA Light, Energy and Environment Congress (2017)
  • Co-Editor, Advanced Concepts in Photovoltaics, RSC Energy & Environmental Series
  • Journal Reviewer (Science, Nature Energy, Nature Materials, Nature Photonics, Nature Nanotechnology, ACS Nano, Nano Letters, ACS Energy Letters, Chemistry of Materials, JPCL)
  • Proposal Reviewer (DOE, Basic Energy Sciences, NSF, ACS, ISF (Israel), Kaust, German Science Foundation, Swiss science foundation)
  • Symposium Organizer (ACS national meetings, MRS national meetings)

Joseph J. Berry

CHOISE Role: Co-Lead, Thrust 2: Controlling Spin Degrees of Freedom

Current Affiliation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Education and Training

  • Postdoctoral, High Resolution Spectroscopy for Solid State Nanostructures, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST/JILA)
  • Ph.D., Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, 2001
  • B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Goshen College, 1994

Research and Professional Experience

  • Research Scientist, NREL, National Center for Photovoltaics, 2006
    • Team lead hybrid perovskite solar cell program.
    • Research on charge transport at interface in all inorganic and organic/
      inorganic interfaces for optoelectronic devices and systems.
    • Research on growth and basic physical properties of transparent conducting oxides for photovoltaic and display technologies, including both single composition and high-throughput combinatorial approaches.
  • Research Associate, NIST, 2004–2006
    • Research focusing on the development and application of high resolution heterodyne spectroscopic techniques to electro-optical systems, including self-assembled quantum dots and III-V semiconductor waveguide structures.
  • NRC Research Fellow, NIST/JILA, 2001–2004
    • Research focusing on the development and application of cavity enhanced spectroscopic techniques to electro-optical systems, including self-assembled quantum dots and III-V 1-D photonic crystals.
  • Research Assistant, The Pennsylvania State University, 1996–2001
    • Research on spintronic and nanostructured semiconductor materials with emphasis on the growth, development, design and characterization of magnetic semiconductors, semiconductor/metal hybrid material system, and optically active semiconductor nanostructures for studies of spin dependent (spintronic) phenomena.
  • Research Assistant, University of Notre Dame and Goshen College, 1993–1995
    • Research conducted with Jacek K. Furdyna and John Ross Buschert on X-ray characterization of II-VI based semiconductor heterostructures.
  • PEW Fellow, PEW Foundation and Goshen College, 1993


Aguiar, J. A., S. Wozny, N. R. Alkurd, M. Yang, L. Kovarik, T. G. Holesinger, M. Al-Jassim,
K. Zhu, W. Zhou, and J. J. Berry. 2016. "Effect of Water Vapor, Temperature, and Rapid Annealing on Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Crystallization." ACS Energy Lett. (May): 155–161.

Berry, J., T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, and I. Lubomirsky, et al. 2015. "Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites (HOIPs): Opportunities and Challenges." Adv. Mater. (July).

Ihly, R., A. M. Dowgiallo, M. Yang, P. Schulz, N. J. Stanton, O. G. Reid, A. J. Ferguson, K. Zhu, J. J. Berry, and J. L. Blackburn. 2016. "Efficient charge extraction and slow recombination in organic-inorganic perovskites capped with semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes." Energy Environ. Sci. (Feb.): 1–11.

Malajovich, I., J. J. Berry, N. Samarth, and D. D. Awschalom. 2001."Persistent sourcing of coherent spins for multifunctional semiconductor spintronics." Nature 411 (6839): 770–772.

Pérez-del-Rey, D., D. Forgács, E. M. Hutter, T. J. Savenije, D. Nordlund, P. Schulz, J. J. Berry, M. Sessolo, and H. J. Bolink. 2016. "Strontium Insertion in Methylammonium Lead Iodide: Long Charge Carrier Lifetime and High Fill-Factor Solar Cells." Adv. Mater. (Sept.): 1–7.

Schelhas, L. T., J. A. Christians, J. J. Berry, M. F. Toney, C. J. Tassone, J. M. Luther, and K. H. Stone. 2016. "Monitoring a Silent Phase Transition in CH3NH3PbI3 Solar Cells via Operando X-ray Diffraction." ACS Energy Lett. 1 (5):1007–1012.

Schulz, P., A. M. Dowgiallo, M. Yang, K. Zhu, J. L. Blackburn, and J. J. Berry. 2016. "Charge Transfer Dynamics between Carbon Nanotubes and Hybrid Organic Metal Halide Perovskite Films." J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (Jan.): 418–425.

Steirer, K. X., P. Schulz, G. Teeter, V. Stevanovic, M. Yang, K. Zhu, and J. J. Berry. 2016. "Defect Tolerance in Methylammonium Lead Triiodide Perovskite." ACS Energy Lett.(July): 360–366.

Yang, M., K. Zhu, J. C. Johnson, J. J. Berry, J. van de Lagemaat, Y. Yang, and M. C. Beard. 2016. "Large polarization-dependent exciton optical Stark effect in lead iodide perovskites." Nat Comms 7 (Aug.): 1–5.

Yang, M., T. Zhang, P. Schulz, Z. Li, G. Li, D. H. Kim, N. Guo, J. J. Berry, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao. 2016. "Facile fabrication of large-grain CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx films for high-efficiency solar cells via CH3NH3Br-selective Ostwald ripening." Nat Comms 7 (July): 1–9.


Conformal Coating of Highly Structured Surfaces, U.S. Patent 8329502 B2 (2012)

Solution Processed Metal Oxide Thin Film Hole Transport Layers for High Performance Organic Solar Cells, US Patent 9543537 B2 (2017)

Select Awards/Honors

  • National Science Foundation Minority Graduate Fellowship: National Science Foundation, 1997–1999
  • National Research Council Fellowship: National Research Council and NIST, 2001–2003
  • Co-recipient of DOE Illuminating Ideas award for work in solid-state lighting R&D, 2007

Jeffrey L. Blackburn

CHOISE Role: Co-Lead, Thrust 3: Controlling Light/Matter Interaction

Current Affiliation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., Analytical Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1999-2004
  • B.S., Chemistry, Wake Forest University, 1995-1999
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, NREL, 2004-2007

Research and Professional Experience

  • Group Manager, Materials Physics, NREL, 2017

Manage a group of full-time scientists, post-doctoral researchers, and graduate students. Responsible for project management/oversight, business development, strategic research directions, hiring/recruiting, personnel and performance management, mentoring and professional development, capability management and development, and safety and training. Group size varies but is typically in the range of 20 to 25.

  • Group Manager, Spectroscopy and Photoscience Group, NREL, 20142017

Manage a group of full-time scientists, post-doctoral researchers, and graduate students. Responsible for project management/oversight, business development, strategic research directions, hiring/recruiting, personnel and performance management, mentoring and professional development, capability management and development, and safety and training. Group size varies but is typically in the range of 20 to 25.

  • Senior Scientist, NREL, 2007–
    • PI and Thrust Leader, BES Solar Photochemistry Core Program, Excitons to Charge Carriers in Molecular and Nanoscale Systems
    • Synthesis, characterization, and device integration of quantum-confined materials
    • Single-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene, semiconductor nanocrystals, transition metal dichalcogenides, perovskites
    • PI and Thrust Leader, EERE Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence
    • PI/Co-PI LDRD – Several funded projects
  • Postdoctoral Researcher, Mike Heben Group, NREL, 20042007
    • Synthesis, separation and fundamental photophysics of SWCNTs
    • Synthesis and hydrogen storage properties of nanoscale carbons
  • Doctoral Student, Arthur Nozik Group, NREL
    • Time-resolved dynamics in III-V and II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals


Avery, A.D., Zhou, B.H., Lee, J.H., Lee, E-S, Miller, E.M., Ihly, R., Wesenberg, D., Mistry, K.S., Guillot, S.L., Zink, B.L., Kim, Y-H, Blackburn, J.L., Ferguson, A.J. Tailored Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Networks with Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties. Nature Energy, 2016, 1, 16033. DOI: 10.1038/nenergy.2016.33

Blackburn, Jeffrey L., Andrew J. Ferguson, Chungyeon Cho, Jaime C. Grunlan, Carbon Nanotube-based Thermoelectric Materials and Devices. Advanced Materials 2017, 30, 1704386. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201704386 (Invited Review, VIP article and front cover).

Blackburn, J.L. Semiconducting Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Solar Energy Harvesting. ACS Energy Letters 2017, 2, 1598. DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00228 (Invited Perspective)

He, X., Hartmann, N.F., Ma, X., Ihly, R., Blackburn, J.L., Gao, W., Kono, J., Yomogida, Y., Hirano, A., Tanaka, T., Kataura, H., Htoon, H., Doorn, S.K. Tunable Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission at Telecom Wavelengths from Carbon Nanotube Quantum Defects. Nature Photonics 2017, 11, 577. DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2017.119

Ihly, R., Dowgiallo, A-M, Yang, M., Schulz, P., Stanton, N.J., Reid, O.G., Ferguson, A.J., Zhu, K., Berry, J.J., Blackburn, J.L. Efficient Charge Extraction and Slow Recombination in Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Capped with Semiconducting Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes. Energy & Environmental Science, 2016, 9, 1439. DOI: 10.1039/C5EE03806E

Ihly, R., Mistry, K.S., Ferguson, A.J., Clikeman, T.T., Larson, B.W., Boltalina, O.V., Strauss, S.H., Rumbles, G., Blackburn, J.L. Tuning the Driving Force for Exciton Dissociation in Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Heterojunctions. Nature Chemistry, 2016, 8, 603. DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2496

MacLeod, Bradleyt A., Noah J. Stanton, Isaac E. Gould, Devin Wesenberg, Rachelle Ihly, Zbyslaw R. Owczarczyk, Katherine E. Hurst, Christopher S. Fewox, Christopher N. Folmar, Katherine Holman Hughes, Barry L. Zink, Jeffrey L. Blackburn and Andrew J. Ferguson. Large n- and p-type thermoelectric power factors from doped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube thin films. Energy & Environmental Science 2017 10, 2168. DOI: 10.1039/C7EE01130J (selected as E&ES HOT Article)

Nenon, D.P., Christians, J.A., Wheeler, L.M., Blackburn, J.L., Sanehira, E.M., Dou, B., Olsen, M., Zhu, K., Berry, J.J., Luther, J.M. Structural and Chemical Evolution of Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskites During Thermal Processing from Solution. Energy & Environmental Science, 2016, 9, 2072, DOI: 10.1039/C6EE01047D

Schulz, P., Dowgiallo, A-M, Yang, M., Zhu, K., Blackburn, J.L., Berry, J. Charge Transfer Dynamics between Carbon Nanotubes and Hybrid Organic Metal Halide Perovskite Films. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2016, 7, 418. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b02721

Wheeler, Lance M., Rachelle Ihly, David T. Moore, Noah J. Stanton, Jeffrey L. Blackburn, Nathan R. Neale. Switchable Photovoltaic Windows Enabled by Reversible Photothermal Complex Dissociation from Metal Halide Perovskites. Nature Communications 2017, 8, 1722. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-01842-4

Synergistic Activities

  • Spring Meetings of the Electrochemical Society: Lead Organizer for yearly ECS symposium "Carbon Nanostructures for Energy Conversion"
  • Journal Reviewer (Nature Materials, Nature Communications, ACS Nano, Nano Letters, ACS Energy Letters, Journal of American Chemical Society, Physical Review B, Nanoscale, others)
  • Served as a "Carbon Nanotube Expert" for the ANSI-Accredited U.S. TAG ISO/TC229 working group 3, "Nanomaterial Characterization Methods" – a working group devoted to developing standards in nanomaterial characterization methods for nano-electronic applications.
  • Proposal Reviewer (DOE, Basic Energy Sciences, NSF)

Volker Blum

CHOISE Role: Key Participant

Current Affiliation: Duke University

Education and Training

  • Diplom, Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1996
  • Dr. rer. nat., Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, 2001
  • Postdoc, Computational Materials Science, NREL, 2002–2004

Research and Professional Experience

  • Associate Professor, MEMS Department, Duke University, 2013–
  • Associate Professor, Chemistry Department (secondary appt.), Duke University, 2015
    • Electronic structure theory, HPC scalability, inorganic and organic-inorg. semiconductors, interfaces, nanomaterials, mol. structure & spectroscopy.
  • Scientist, Fritz Haber Institute, 2004–2013 (2009-2013 Group Leader)
    • Electronic structure theory, HPC scalability, theory of metal and semiconductor interfaces, molecular structure & spectroscopy.


Liu, C., Huhn, W., Du, K.-Z., Vazquez-Mayagoitia, A., Dirkes, D., You, W., Kanai, Y., Mitzi, D.B., Blum, V. (2018). "Tunable Semiconductors: Control over Carrier States and Excitations in Layered Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites," arXiv:1803.07230 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci], .

Zhu, T., Huhn, W. P., Wessler, G. C., Shin, D., Saparov, B., Mitzi, D. B., Blum, V. (2017). "I2-II-IV-VI4 (I = Cu, Ag; II = Sr, Ba; IV = Ge, Sn; VI = S, Se): Chalcogenides for Thin Film Photovoltaics," Chem. Mater. Vol. 29, 7868-7879. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02638

Huhn, W., Blum, V. (2017). "One-hundred-three compound band-structure benchmark of post-self-consistent spin-orbit coupling treatments in density functional theory," Phys. Rev. Materials Vol. 1, 033803. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.1.033803

Shin, D., Zhu, T., Huang, X., Gunawan, O., Blum, V., Mitzi, D. B. (2017). "Earth-Abundant Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Devices with over 5% Efficiency Based on a Cu2BaSn(S,Se)4 Absorber", Advanced Materials Vol. 29, 1606945. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201606945

Shin, D., Saparov, B., Zhu, T., Huhn, W. P., Blum, V., Mitzi, D. B. (2016). "BaCu2Sn(S, Se)4–Earth-Abundant Chalcogenides for Thin-Film Photovoltaics," Chem. Mater. Vol. 28,  4771-4780. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b01832

Pinheiro Jr., M., T., Caldas, M.J., Rinke, P., Blum, V., Scheffler, M. (2015). "Length Dependence of Ionization Potentials of Trans-Acetylenes: Internally-Consistent DFT/GW Approach", Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 92, 195134. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.195134

Ihrig, A., Wieferink, J., Zhang, I. Y., Ropo, M., Ren, X., Rinke, P., Scheffler, M., Blum, V. (2015). "Accurate localized resolution of identity approach for linear-scaling hybrid density functionals and for many-body perturbation theory," New J. Phys. Vol. 17, 093020. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/17/9/093020

Levchenko, S., Ren, X., Wieferink, J., Johanni, R., Rinke, P., Blum, V., Scheffler, M. (2015). "Hybrid functionals for large periodic systems in an all-electron, numeric atom-centered basis framework," Comp. Phys. Commun. Vol. 192, 60-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2015.02.021

Ren, X., Rinke, P., Blum, V., Wieferink, J., Tkatchenko, A., Sanfilippo, A., Reuter, K.,  Scheffler, M. (2012). "Resolution-of-identity approach to Hartree-Fock, hybrid density functionals, RPA, MP2 and GW with numeric atom-centered orbital basis functions," New J. Phys., Vol. 14, 053020. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/14/5/053020

Blum, V., Gehrke, R., Hanke, F., Havu, P., Havu, V., Ren, X., Reuter, K., Scheffler, M. (2009). "Ab initio molecular simulations with numeric atom-centered orbitals." Comp. Phys. Commun., Vol. 180, 2175-2196. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2009.06.022

Synergistic Activities

  • Lead organizer or co-organizer of 7 Hands-On Workshops (2009-2018): "DFT and Beyond," 10 days, 60-80 students & post-docs, Berlin, Trieste, Los Angeles, Beijing.
  • Lead organizer or co-organizer of 16 other conferences, workshops, invited & focus sessions at society meetings including at APS March Meetings 2015, 2016, 2017.
  • Service in community organizations and societies: 2013-14 Member (2014: Chair), Nomination Committee, APS-DCOMP; 2011-2017 Member, "N-scaling" committee,; 2018- Member "Software Engineering" Working Group,
  • Community based scientific software: Coordinator and lead developer (since 2004), FHI-aims electronic structure code, globally distributed development & users. Coordinator, "ELSI",; Advisory board, CECAM Electr. Structure Library.
  • Reviewer for Journals, Grant Proposals, and Consortia, including Phys. Commun. (specialist editor), Phy. Rev. Lett., Phys. Rev. B, J. Am. Chem. Soc., J. Chem. Phys., NSF, DOE, ACS-PRF, and others.

Guilia Galli

CHOISE Role: Team Coordinator, Computation and Theory

Current Affiliation: The University of Chicago

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., Physics, International for Advanced Studies, 1986
  • M.S., Physics, International for Advanced Studies, 1984
  • B.S., Physics, University of Modena, 1982
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 1987-1989
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, IBM Research Division, Zurich, CH, 1990

Research and Professional Experience

  • Professor of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 2017 –
  • Director, Midwest Integrated Center for Computational Materials (MICCoM), 2015 –
  • Senior Scientist, Argonne National Laboratory, 2014 –
  • Liew Family Professor of Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, 2013 –
  • Professor of Physics, University of California, Davis, 2009 – 2013
  • Professor of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, 2005 – 2013
  • Group Leader, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2000 – 2005
  • Staff Physicist, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1998 – 2000
  • Senior Scientist, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 1995 – 1998
  • Senior Researcher, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 1991 – 1995


Brawand, Nicholas, Márton Vörös, Marco Govoni, and Giulia Galli, "Generalization of dielectric dependent hybrid functionals to finite systems", Phys. Rev. X, 6, 041002, 2016,

Brawand, Nicholas P., Marco Govoni, Márton Vörös, and Giulia Galli, "Performance and self-consistency of the generalized dielectric dependent hybrid functional", J. Chem. Theory Comput., 13, 3318, 2017, doi: 10.1021/acs.jctc.7b00368

Gaiduk, Alex, T. Anh Pham, Marco Govoni, Francesco Paesani and Giulia Galli, "Electron affinity of liquid water", Nature Comm., 9, 247, 2018, doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-02673-z

Gaiduk, Alex P., Marco Govoni, Robert Seidel, Jonathan Skone, Bernd Winter, and Giulia Galli,"Photoelectron spectra of aqueous solutions from first principles", J. Am. Chem. Soc. Comm.,138, 6912, 2016, doi:10.1021/jacs.6b00225

Gaiduk, Alex P. and Giulia Galli, "Local and Global Effects of Dissolved Sodium Chloride on the Structure of Water", J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 8, 1496-1502, 2017, doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b00239

Goldsmith, Zachary, Aparna Harshan, James Gerken, Márton Vörös, Giulia Galli, Shannon Stahl, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer, "Characterization of NiFe oxyhydroxide electrocatalysts by integrated electronic structure calculations and spectroelectrochemistry", Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 3050-3055, 2017,

Pham, Tuan Anh, Marco Govoni, Robert Seidel, Stephen E. Bradforth, Eric Schwegler, and Giulia Galli, "Electronic Structure of Aqueous Solutions: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiments", Science Advances, 3, 6, 1603210, 2017, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1603210

Pham, T. Anh, Yuan Ping, and Giulia Galli, "Modeling heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting" Nat. Mater., 16, 401-408, 2017, doi:10.1038/nmat4803

Ping, Yuan, William Goddard III and Giulia Galli, "Energetics and solvation effects at the photoanode-catalyst interface: Ohmic contact versus Schottky barrier", J. Am. Chem. Soc. Comm., 137, 5264, 2015, doi: 10.1021/jacs.5b00798

Wan, Quan, and Giulia Galli, "First-principles framework to compute sum-frequency generation vibrational spectra of semiconductors and insulators", Phys. Rev. Lett.,115, 246404, 2015,

Synergistic Activities

  • Editor, Nature Computational Materials (2017 –)
  • Editor, Nature Scientific Data (2016 –)
  • Member, ACS Central Science (2015 –)
  • Member, Journal of Physical Chemistry (2013 –)
  • Member, Journal of Chemical Physics (2013 –)

Jinsong Huang

CHOISE Role: Associate Director and Co-Lead, Thrust 4: Harnessing Charge-Carrier Degrees of Freedom

Current Affiliation: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Los Angeles, 2007
  • M.S., Semiconductor Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 2003
  • B.E., Materials and Photoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan, 2000

Research and Professional Experience

  • Professor, Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2017–
  • Susan Rosowski University Professor, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2016–2017
  • Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2014–2016
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2009–2014
  • Research Scientist, Material Department, Agiltron Inc., 2007–2009


Bi, C., Q. Wang, Y. Shao, Y. Yuan, Z. Xiao and J. Huang. 2015. "Nonwetting Surface Driven High Aspect Ratio Crystalline Grain Growth for Efficient Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells." Nature Communications 6: 7747.

Dong, Q., Y. Fang, Y. Shao, P. Mulligan, J. Qiu, L. Cao, and J. Huang. 2015. "Electron-Hole Diffusion Lengths > 175 μm in Solution Grown CH3NH3PbI3 Single Crystals." Science 347: 967–970.

Fang. Y., Q. Dong, Y. Shao, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang. 2015. "Highly Narrow Band Perovskite Single Crystal Photodetectors with Tunable Spectral Response from Blue to Red." Nature Photonics 9 (10): 67–686. (Published online.)

Huang. J., Y. Yuan, Y. Shao and Y. Yan. 2017. "Advance in Understanding the Physical Properties of Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaic Applications." Nat. Rev. Mater. 2: 17042.

Shao, Y., Z. Xiao, C. Bi, Y. Yuan and J. Huang. 2014. "Origin and Elimination of Photocurrent Hysteresis by Fullerene Passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells." Nature Communications 5: 5784.

Wei, H., D. DeSantis, W. Wei, Y. Deng, D. Guo, T. J. Savenije, L. Cao, and J. Huang. 2017. "Dopant Compensation in Alloyed CH3NH3PbBr3-xClx Perovskite Single Crystals for Gamma-ray Spectroscopy." Nature Materials 16: 826.

Xiao, Z., Y. Yuan, Y. Shao, Q. Wang, Q. Dong, C. Bi, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman and J. Huang. 2015. "Giant Switchable Photovoltaic Effect in Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Devices." Nature Materials 14: 193–198.

Xiao, Z., C. Bi, Y. Shao, Q. Dong, Q. Wang, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, Y. Gao and J. Huang. 2014. "Efficient, High Yield Perovskite Photovoltaic Devices Grown by Interdiffusion of Solution-Processed Precursor Stacking Layers." Energy Environ. Sci. 7 (8): 2619–2623.

Zhao, J., X. Zheng, Y. Deng, T. Li, Y. Shao, A. Gruverman, J. Shield and J. Huang. 2016. "Is Cu a Stable Electrode Material in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells for a 30-Year Lifetime?"  Energy Environ. Sci. 9: 3650–3656.

Zheng, X., B. Chen, J. Dai, Y. Fang, Y. Bai, Y. Lin, H. Wei, X. C. Zeng and J. Huang. 2017. "Defect Passivation using Quaternary Ammonium Halides for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells." Nature Energy 2: 17102.

Synergistic Activities

  • Partner with Texas Instrument, Agiltron Inc and Hitron Tech. Inc for ultraviolet, X-ray, infrared optical sensor development. Energy Material Corp. for perovskite solar cells
  • Conference and Workshop Organization: Symposium Leading Organizer or Section Chair in Material Research Society (2017, 2016, 2013, and 2011)
  • Editor Board Member: Scientific Reports, Materials Today—Physics

Yan (Sarah) Li

CHOISE Role: Team Coordinator, Measurements and Characterization

Current Affiliation: University of Utah

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., Physics, University of California, Riverside, 2010
  • Postdoctoral Research, Los Alamos National Lab, 2010–2013
  • B.S., Materials Physics, Materials Physics, 2004

Research and Professional Experience

  • Assistant Professor of Physics, University of Utah, 2013–
  • Director's Fellow, Los Alamos National Lab, 2011–2013
  • Postdoctoral Researcher, Los Alamos National Lab, 2010–2011
  • Graduate student researcher/teaching assistant, UC Riverside, 2004–2010


Han, Wei, K. Pi, K. M. McCreary, Yan Li, Jared J. I. Wong, A. G. Swartz, and R. K. Kawakami. 2010. "Tunneling spin injection into single layer Graphene." Phys. Rev. Lett. 105: 167202.

Li, Yan, N. Sinitsyn, D. L. Smith, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, D. R. Yakovlev, M. Bayer, and S. A. Crooker. 2012."Intrinsic spin fluctuations reveal the dynamical response of coupled hole—nuclear spins in (In,Ga) as quantum dots." Phys. Rev. Lett. 108: 186603.

Li, Yan, Wei Han, A. G. Swartz, K. Pi, J. J. I. Wong, S. Mack, D. D. Awschalom, and R. K. Kawakami. 2010. "Oscillatory spin polarization and Magneto-optic Kerr Effect in Fe3O4 thin films on GaAs(001)." Phys. Rev. Lett. 105: 167203.

Odenthal, Patrick, William Talmadge, Nathan Gundlach, Ruizhi Wang, Chuang Zhang, Dali Sun, Zhi-Gang Yu, Z. Valy Vardeny, and Yan S. Li. 2017. "Spin-polarized exciton quantum beating in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites." Nature Physics 13: 894.

Sinitsyn, N. A., Yan Li, S. A. Crooker, A. Saxena, and D. L. Smith. 2012. "Role of nuclear quadrupole coupling on decoherence and relaxation of central spins in quantum dots." Phys. Rev. Lett. 109: 166605.

Wang, W. H., K. Pi, Y. Li, Y. F. Chiang, P. Wei, J. Shi, and R. K. Kawakami. 2008. "Magnetotransport properties of mesoscopic graphite spin valves." Phys. Rev. B 77: 020402.

Xing ,Wenyu, Yangyang Chen, Patrick M. Odenthal, Xiao Zhang, Wei Yuan, Tang Su, Qi Song, et al. 2017. "Electric Field Effect in Multilayer Cr2Ge2Te6: a Ferromagnetic Two-Dimensional Material." 2D Materials 4: 024009.

Yan Li, Y. Chye, Y. F. Chiang, K. Pi, W. H. Wang, J. M. Stephens, S. Mack, D. D. Awschalom and R. K. Kawakami. 2008. "Inversion of Ferromagnetic Proximity Polarization by MgO Interlayers." Phys. Rev. Lett. 100: 237205.

Zhang, Shixiong, Shadi A. Dayeh, Yan Li, Scott A. Crooker, Darryl L. Smith, and S. T. Picraux. 2013. "Electrical spin injection and detection in silicon nanowires through oxide tunnel barriers." Nano Lett. 13: 430.

Joseph M. Luther

CHOISE Role: Team Coordinator, Sample Synthesis and Preparation

Current Affiliation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Education and Training

  • Postdoctoral, Plasmonic Semiconducting Nanocrystals and Cation Exchange Reactions at the Nanoscale, Paul Alivisatos Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
  • Ph.D./M.S., Electrical Engineering, Physics, Richard Ahrenkiel Group. University of Colorado; Arthur Nozik Group. Colorado School of Mines
  • B.S., Electrical Engineering, North Carolina State University

Research and Professional Experience

  • Senior Scientist, NREL, 2009–
    • Co-PI, EERE, SunShot NG II&III, SuNLaMP, Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells
    • Co-PI, Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics (Energy Frontier Research Center)
    • PI/Co-PI LDRD – Several Funded Perovskite and QD projects
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, Paul Alivisatos Group, LBNL, 2008–2009.
    • Developed synthesis for various new nanocrystals.
  • Doctoral Student, Arthur Nozik Group, NREL, 2005–2008
    • Electronic coupling of Pb-Chalcogenide nanomaterials for Multi-exciton generation.
  • Richard Ahrenkiel Research Group, NREL, 2002–2005
    • III-V and Si defect and lifetimes in collaboration with commercial PV companies
  • Salah Bedair Research Group, North Carolina State University, 2001
    • GaN and InGaAs semiconductors for solid-state lighting and tandem cell PV applications


Christians, J. A., J. J. Berry, J. M. and Luther et al. Forthcoming. "Tailored interfaces of unencapsulated perovskite solar cells for >1,000 hour operational stability." Nature Energy.

Luther, J. M., P. K. Jain, T. Ewers, and A. P. Alivisatos. 2011. "Localized surface plasmon resonances arising from free carriers in doped quantum dots." Nature materials 10 (5): 361–366.

Luther. J. M., and J. M. Pietryga. 2013. "Stoichiometry control in quantum dots: A viable analog to impurity doping of bulk materials." ACS nano 7 (3): 1845–1849.

Nanayakkara, S. U., J. van de Lagemaat, and J. M. Luther. 2015. "Scanning Probe Characterization of Heterostructured Colloidal Nanomaterials." Chemical Reviews 115 (16): 8157–8181.

Nenon , D. P., J. A. Christians, L. M. Wheeler, et al., J.M. Luther. 2016. "Structural and chemical evolution of methylammonium lead halide perovskites during thermal processing from solution." Energy & Environmental Science 9: 2072–2082.

Sanehira, E. M., B. J. Tremolet de Villers, P. Schulz, et al., J.M. Luther. 2016. "The Influence of Electrode Interfaces on the Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells: Reduced Degradation using MoOx/Al for Hole Collection." ACS Energy Lett.1 (1): 38–45.

Sanehira, E. M., J. M. Luther, et al. 2017. "Enhanced mobility CsPbI3 quantum dot arrays for record-efficiency, high-voltage photovoltaic cells." Science Advances.

Schelhas, L. T., J. A. Christians, J. J. Berry, M. F. Toney, C. J. Tassone, J. M. Luther, K. H. Stone. 2017. "Monitoring a Silent Phase Transition in CH3NH3PbI3 Solar Cells via Operando X-ray Diffraction." ACS Energy Letters 1 (5): 1007–1012.

Semonin, O. E., J. M. Luther, S. Choi, H. Y. Chen, J. Gao, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard. 2011. "Peak external photocurrent quantum efficiency exceeding 100% via MEG in a quantum dot solar cell." Science, 334 (6062): 1530–1533.

Swarnkar, A., A. R. Marshall, E. M. Sanehira, et al., J. M. Luther. 2016. "Quantum dot-induced phase stabilization of a-CsPbI3 perovskite for high-efficiency photovoltaics." Science 6308:

Yang, Y., Y. Yan, M. Yang, S. Choi, K. Zhu, J. M. Luther, and M. C. Beard. 2015. "Low surface recombination velocity in solution-grown CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystal." Nature Comm. 6.


"Metal halide solid-state surface treatment for nanocrystal materials," J.M. Luther, R. Crisp, M.C. Beard, US Patent 9,324,562.

"Secondary treatment of films of colloidal quantum dots for optoelectronics and devices produced thereby," O.E. Semonin, J.M. Luther, M.C. Beard, H.Y. Chen, US Patent 8,685,781.


  • Recipient of 2015 NREL Outstanding Team Award–Staff awards
  • NREL outstanding mentor award SULI program 2014
  • NREL President's Award 2014 and 2017
  • First Place Colorado School of Mines Graduate Research Fair, 2007
  • Third Place Poster competition AVS, Rocky Mountain Chapter, 2007

David B. Mitzi

CHOISE Role: Co-Lead, Thrust 1: Crystalline HOIS Design, Synthesis, and Structure/Property Relationship

Current Affiliation: Duke University

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., Applied Physics, Stanford University, 1990
  • B.S.E., Princeton University, 1985

Research and Professional Experience

  • Simon Family Professor of Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, and of Chemistry, Duke University, 2014–

Program targets development of sustainable energy conversion/storage materials, most notably in the area of photovoltaic (PV) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices. Current focus is on developing the solid-state chemistry of new halide and chalcogenide semiconductors, including organic-inorganic perovskites, for application in PV/PEC absorbers, LED devices and other optoelectronic applications.

  • Manager, Photovoltaic Science and Technology, IBM T. Watson Research Center, 2009–2014

Initiated and managed a multi-company (TOK, Solar Frontier, IBM) program to develop a low-cost high-throughput approach to deposit thin-film chalcogenide-based absorber layers for high-efficiency solar cells. The program demonstrated solution-deposited Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS) solar cells with certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of >15% and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) devices with >12% PCE, which represents the world record performance for this earth abundant.

  • Research Staff Member

Developed a lab and program to study structure-property relationships in organic-inorganic perovskites and other solution-processed high-mobility inorganic semiconductors (e.g., for solar cells, TFTs, LEDs). Studies included examination of solid-state and solution-based synthetic techniques for targeted complex materials, single crystal growth and thin-film deposition processes (vapor phase, melt- and solution-based), crystal structure refinement, measurement of optical/magnetic/electrical properties.


Du, K. Z., Q. Tu, X. Zhang, Q. Han, J. Liu, S. Zauscher, and D. B. Mitzi. 2017. "Two-Dimensional Lead(II) Halide-Based Hybrid Perovskites Templated by Acene Alkylamines: Crystal Structures, Optical Properties, and Piezoelectricity." Inorg. Chem. 56: 9291–9302. DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.7b01094.

Graetzel, M., R. A. J. Janssen, D. B. Mitzi, and E. H. Sargent. 2012. "Materials interface engineering for solution-processed photovoltaics." Nature 488: 304–312. DOI:10.1038/nature11476. (Invited review.)

Kagan, C. R., D. B. Mitzi, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos. 1999. "Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials as Semiconducting Channels in Thin-Film Field-Effect Transistors." Science 286: 945–947. DOI:10.1126/science.286.5441.945.

Mitzi, D. B. 1999. "Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites and Related Systems." Progress in Inorganic Chemistry 48: 1–121. DOI: 10.1002/9780470166499.ch1. (Invited chapter.)

Mitzi, D. B. 2001. "Templating and Structural Engineering in Organic-Inorganic Perovskites." J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans. 1–12. DOI: 10.1039/B007070J.

Mitzi, D. B., C. A. Feild, W. T. A. Harrison, and A. M. Guloy. 1994. "Conducting Tin Halides with a Layered Organic-Based Perovskite Structure." Nature 369: 467–469. DOI:10.1038/369467a0.

Mitzi, D. B., K. Chondroudis, and C. R. Kagan. "Organic-Inorganic Electronics." 2001. IBM J. Res. and Dev. 45: 29–45. DOI: 10.1147/rd.451.0029.

Mitzi. D. B. 2001. "Thin-Film Deposition of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials." Chem. Mater. 13 (10): 3283–3298. DOI: 10.1021/cm0101677.

Saparov, B., and D. B. Mitzi. 2016. "Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Versatility for Functional Materials Design." Chemical Reviews 116: 4558–4596. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00715.

Saparov, B., F. Hong, J. P. Sun, H. S. Duan, W. Meng, S. Cameron, I. G. Hill, Y. Yan, and D. B. Mitzi. 2015. "Thin-film preparation and characterization of Cs3Sb2I9: A lead-free layered perovskite semiconductor." Chem. Mater. 27: 5622–5632. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b01989.

Synergistic Activities

  • Editorial Boards: Energy Mater. (Wiley) (2011-pres.); Phys. Rev. Materials (APS) (2017-pres.)
  • Science Advisory Boards: Center for Sustainable Materials Chemistry, Oregon/Oregon State Univ. (2012–2016); International Advisory Panel, UK EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in New and Sustainable Photovoltaics, Liverpool (lead), Bath (co-lead) (June 2016 – present)
  • Review Committee: Link Foundation Energy Graduate Fellowships (2014), DOE SunShot SuNLaMP full proposals (2015), DOE EERE Postdoctoral Research Award applications (2016), DOE Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (DOE-EPSCoR) proposals (2016)
  • Book editor: "Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials," John Wiley & Sons, 2009 (497 p).
  • Organizer or co-organizer of five symposia at MRS Fall/Spring Meetings, including most recently Symposium W "Perovskite-Based and related Novel Material Solar Cells" for Fall 2014

Peter C. Sercel

CHOISE RoleKey Participant

Current Affiliation: Peter Sercel Research, LLC

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, Applied Physics, 1992
  • M.S., California Institute of Technology, Applied Physics, 1988
  • B.S., University of Arizona, Engineering Physics, 1987

Research and Professional Experience

  • President and principal scientist, Peter Sercel Research LLC. (2018–present). Research on electronic and optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures including metal-halide perovskites. Specialist in application of K.P theory, the theory of invariants, and the multi-band effective mass approximation to modelling energy levels, optical properties, and relaxation dynamics of semiconductor nanostructures.
  • Visiting Associate, Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology (2017–2021).  Research on effect of symmetry breaking effects on exciton fine structure focusing on II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals.
  • VP of Engineering and Production (2012–2017), VP of Engineering (2007–2012), HOYA Corp USA  HOYA Xponent Division. Responsible for all aspects of engineering and production of HOYA Xponent’s non-hermetic planar-lightwave-circuit based fiber optic communications modules. 
  • Lecturer, Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology. Instructor for Modern Optics. 2007
  • Director of Manufacturing Engineering (2005–2007), Senior Technical Manager (2001–2005), President (1999–2001), Xponent Photonics, Inc.  Founded Xponent Photonics (with Prof.s Kerry Vahala and Amnon Yariv of Caltech) to pursue commercial development of evanescent coupling technology for fiber-optic communications modules. 
  • Associate Professor (tenured) (1998–2001), Assistant  Professor (1992–1997) Department of Physics, University of Oregon.  Experimental and theoretical research on semiconductor quantum dots.  Molecular beam epitaxy research, time-resolved luminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy on epitaxially grown Stranski-Krastanov quantum dots; multi-band K.P modelling of quantum dot electronic structure and optical polarization properties. 

Selected Publications

Y.  Han, W. Liang, X. Lin, Y. Li, F. Sun, F. Zhang, P.C. Sercel, K. Wu, Lattice distortion inducing exciton splitting and coherent quantum beating in CsPbI3 perovskite quantum dots, Nat. Materials, accepted (2022); DOI: 10.1038/s41563-022-01349-4arXiv:2206.13716.

 U. N. Huynh, Y. Liu, A. Chanana, D. R. Khanal, P. C. Sercel, J. Huang, and Z. V. Vardeny,  Transient quantum beatings of trions in hybrid organic tri-iodine perovskite single crystal.  Nature Communications 13:1428 , (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-29053-6.

 M. Steger, S.M. Janke, P.C. Sercel, B.W. Larson, H. Lu, X. Xin, V. Yu, V. Blum, and J.L. Blackburn, On the Optical Anisotropy in 2D Metal-Halide Perovskites, Nanoscale, 14, 752-765(2022).  DOI: 10.1039/d1nr06899g.

M. Gramlich, M W. Swift, C.  Lampe, J. L. Lyons, M. Doblinger, Al. L.Efros, P C. Sercel, A. S. Urban, Dark and Bright Excitons in Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets , Adv. Sci., DOI: 10.1002/ADVS.202103013 (2021).

M W. Swift, J. L. Lyons, Al. L. Efros, and P. C. Sercel, Rashba exciton in a 2D perovskite quantum dot, Nanoscale, 13, 16769 -16769 (2021).  DOI: 10.1039/d1nr04884h

M. K. Jana, Ruyi Song, Y. Xie, R. Zhao, P. C. Sercel, V. Blum, and D. B. Mitzi,  Structural descriptor for enhanced spin-splitting in 2D hybrid perovskites,   Nature Communications, (2021) 12:4982, (2021). DOI:10.1038/s41467-021-25149-7

 Sercel, P. C., Lyons, J. L., Wickramaratne, D., Bernstein, N., Vaxenberg, R., and Efros, Al. L., “Exciton Fine Structure in Perovskite Nanocrystals”, Nano Lett, published on-line May 15, 2019, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b01467.

M. A. Becker, R. Vaxenburg, G. Nedelcu, P. C. Sercel, A. Shabaev, M. J. Mehl, J. G. Michopoulos, S. G. Lambrakos, N. Bernstein, J. L. Lyons, T. Stöferle, R. F. Mahrt, M. V. Kovalenko, D. J. Norris, G. Rainò, and Al. L. Efros, “Bright Triplet Excitons in Caesium Lead Halide Perovskites”, Nature 553, 189 (2018). DOI: 10.1038/nature25147.

Darrell F. Schroeter, David J. Griffiths, and Peter C. Sercel, “Defect-Assisted Relaxation in Quantum Dots at Low Temperature”, Phys. Rev. B. 54 1486 (1996). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.54.1486

Peter C. Sercel and Kerry J. Vahala, “An Analytical Formalism for Determining Quantum Wire and Quantum Dot Bandstructure in the Multiband Envelope Function Approximation”, Phys. Rev. B, 42, 3690, (1990). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.42.3690


Fifteen U.S. Patents issued. Selected patents below:

9,178,622 Cross-talk reduction in a bidirectional optoelectronic device, Ruiz; Araceli, Sercel; Peter C., Paslaski; Joel S., Wyss; Rolf A., Nov. 3, 2015.

9,151,664 Submount for optoelectronic, optical, or photonic components, Wyss; Rolf A.,  Sercel; Peter C.,  Oct. 6, 2015.

8,867,872  Optical waveguide splitter on a waveguide substrate for attenuating a light source, Sercel; Peter C.,  Sonehara; Toshiaki,  Wyss; Rolf A.  Oct. 21, 2014.

8,861,970 Cross-talk reduction in a bidirectional optoelectronic device, Paslaski; Joel S.,  Ruiz; Araceli, Sercel; Peter C., Wyss; Rolf A.  Oct. 14, 2014.

7,625,132 Packaging for a fiber-coupled optical device, Benzoni; Albert M., Paslaski; Joel S.,  Sercel; Peter C.,  Dec. 1, 2009.


  • 1996-2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (Inaugural year)
  • 1996-1999  U.S. Army Research Office Young Investigator Award


Adrienne D. Stiff-Roberts

CHOISE Role: Key Participant

Current Affiliation: Duke University

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., Applied Physics, University of Michigan, 2004
  • M.S.E., Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2001
  • B.E.E., Electrical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999
  • B.S., Physics, Spelman College, 1999

Research and Professional Experience

  • Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 2011–
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 2004–2011
  • Doctoral Student, Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, 1999–2004
  • Summer Research Fellow, AT&T Labs–Research, 1999
  • Undergraduate Research Assistant, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1998–1999
  • Summer Intern, NASA Ames Research Center, 1996
  • Summer Intern, NASA Ames Research Center, 1995
  • Undergraduate Research Assistant, Spelman College, 1995–1997


Barraza, E. T., W. A. Dunlap-Shohl, D. B. Mitzi, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts. 2017. "Deposition of Methylammonium Lead Triiodide by Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation." Journal of Electronic Materials (September). DOI: 10.1007/s11664-017-5814-0.

Bhattacharya, P., S. Ghosh, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts. 2004. "Quantum dot opto-electronic devices." in Annual Review of Materials Research, edited by D. R. Clarke and M. Rühle, 34: 1–40. Palo Alto: Annual Reviews.

Dunlap-Shohl, W. A., E. Tomas Barraza, A. Barrette, K. Gundogdu, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, and D. B. Mitzi. 2017. "MAPbI3 Solar Cells with Absorber Deposited by Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation." ACS Energy Letters. (Accepted December 2017.)

Ge, W. Y., A. Atewologun and A. D. Stiff-Roberts. 2015. "Hybrid nanocomposite thin films deposited by emulsion-based resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation for photovoltaic application." Organic Electronics 22 (March): 98–107.

Ge, W., N. K. Li, R. D. McCormick, E. Lichtenberg, Y. G. Yingling, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts. 2016. "Emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE deposition of conjugated polymers: primary solvent effect and its implications on organic solar cell performance." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8 (July): 19494–19506.

Pate, R, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts. 2009. "The impact of laser-target absorption depth on the surface and internal morphology of matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporated conjugated polymer thin films." Chemical Physics Letters 477 (August): 406–410.

Pate, R., R. McCormick, L. Chen, W. Zhou, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts. 2011. "RIR-MAPLE Deposition of Conjugated Polymers for Application to Optoelectronic Devices." Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing 105 (November): 555–563. DOI 10.1007/s00339-011-6598-3. (Invited.)

Stiff-Roberts A. D. 2009. "Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: A Review," Journal of Nanophotonics 3 (April): 031607. (Invited.)

Stiff-Roberts, A. D. and W. Ge. 2017. "Organic/Hybrid Thin Films Deposited by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE)." Applied Physics Review 4 (November): 041303. (Invited.)

Yu, Q., W. Ge, A. Atewologun, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, and G. P. López. 2015. "Antimicrobial and Bacteria-Releasing Multifunctional Surfaces: Oligo (p-phenylene-ethynylene)/Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) Films Deposited by RIR-MAPLE." Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 126 (February): 328–334.

Synergistic Activities

  • Service to Scientific and Engineering Community
    • Committee Member, Electronic Materials Conference (EMC), 2016-2019
    • Editorial Board Member, Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, Quantum Physics,
    • Technical Committee Member, IEEE Electron Devices Society (EDS), Optoelectronic Devices, 2015-2017
    • IEEE Teaching Award Committee, 2015-2017
  • Broadening Participation of Underrepresented Groups in STEM
    • Faculty Advisor, Duke Chapter of National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE), 2016–present
    • Faculty Advisor, Materials Research Society (MRS) Student Chapter, 2013–present
    • Director and Instructor, Student Engineers Network, Strengthening Opportunities in Research (SENSOR) Saturday Academy, 2007 & 2014-Present: The SENSOR Saturday Academy is an outreach program that Stiff-Roberts created as part of the 2006 NSF CAREER Award, and the program has been offered with support by the Burroughs Welcome Fund. The program serves a single cohort of 24 8th graders from underrepresented minority groups during the entire academic year. Instruction includes the engineering design process and the operation of different sensors for water quality. The Academy also features enrichment opportunities such as lab and campus tours, research presentations, and panel discussions.
  • Innovations in Teaching
    • ECE 341L–Solar Cells. Stiff-Roberts created a new course that covers the fundamental materials and device physics related to inorganic and organic solar cells. The course is unique in that it has minimal prerequisites so that it can introduce renewable solar energy to a wide range of students from different disciplines but interested in energy applications. The course includes an extensive lab component in which students fabricate and characterize organic solar cells to investigate research questions related to the material selection or device fabrication.

Select Awards/Honors

  • Invited Speaker, National Academy of Engineering (NAE) EU-US Frontiers of Engineering Symposium, Finland, 2016
  • Duke University Julian Abele Award for Graduate Mentor of the Year, 2016
  • Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), Department of Defense, Office of Naval Research, 2009
  • IEEE Early Career Award in Nanotechnology of the Nanotechnology Council for "contributions to the development of nanoscale quantum dots for infrared detection," 2009
  • Senior Member, IEEE, 2009
  • Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award, 2007
  • National Science Foundation CAREER Award, 2006

Michael F. Toney

CHOISE Role: Co-Lead, Thrust 1: Crystalline HOIS Design, Synthesis, and Structure/Property Relationship; and User Facility Coordinator

Current Affiliation: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

Education and Training

  • Postdoctoral Fellow, Surface Physics, Risø National Laboratory
  • Ph.D./M.S., Physics, University of Washington, 1983/1980
  • B.S., Physics with honors, California Institute of Technology, 1979

Research and Professional Experience

  • Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) Materials Sciences Division Head, 2010–
    • Manage operations of ten SSRL beamlines and beamline operations group.
    • Develop and implement energy sciences strategy.
  • Distinguished Scientific Staff, SSRL, 2014–
    • Conduct research and develop strategy in advanced X-ray techniques for energy sciences.
  • Senior Scientific Staff, SSRL, 2003–2014
    • Conduct research in advanced X-ray techniques for energy sciences, including photovoltaics and catalysis.
  • Research Staff Member, IBM Almaden Research Center, 1984–2003
    • Conduct research on electrochemical interfaces, polymer thin films and magnetic storage.
  • NATO Postdoctoral Fellow, Risø National Lab, 1983–1984
    • Surface X-ray scattering.


Berry, J. J., T. Buonassisi, D. A. Egger, G. Hodes, L. Kronik, Y. L. Loo, I. Lubomirsky, et al. 2015. "Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites (HOIPs): Opportunities and Challenges." Adv. Mater. 27: 5102–5112. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502294.

Pool, V. L., A. Gold-Parker, M. D. McGehee, and M. F. Toney. 2015. "Chlorine in PbCl2-Derived Hybrid-Perovskite Solar Absorbers." Chem. Mater. 27: 7240–7243. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b03581.

Pool, V.L., B. Dou, D.G. Van Campen, T.R. Klein, F.S. Barnes, S.E. Shaheen, Md. I. Ahmad, M. F. A. M. van Hest, and M. F. Toney. 2017. "Thermal engineering of FAPbI3 perovskite material via radiative thermal annealing and in situ XRD." Nature Comms 8: 14075. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14075.

Prasanna, R, A Gold-Parker, T. Leijtens, B. Conings, A. Babayigit, H. G. Boyen, M. F. Toney, and M. D. McGehee. 2017. "Band Gap Tuning via Lattice Contraction and Octahedral Tilting in Perovskite Materials for Photovoltaics." J Amer Chem Soc 139: 11117–11124. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b04981.

Schelhas, L.T., K. H. Stone, S. P. Harvey, D. Zakhidov, A. Salleo, G. Teeter, I. L. Repins, M. F. Toney. 2017. "Point defects in Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe): Resonant x-ray diffraction study of the low temperature order/disorder transition." Physica Status Solidi B 254, 1700156.

Sharenko. A., and M. F. Toney. 2016. "Relationships between Lead Halide Perovskite Thin-Film Fabrication, Morphology, and Performance in Solar Cells." J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 138: 463–470. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b10723.

Sharenko. A., C. Mackeen, L. Jewell, F. Bridges, and M. F. Toney. 2017. "Evolution of Iodoplumbate Complexes in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Precursor Solutions." Chem Mater 29: 1315–1320. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b04917.

Shi, P. F. Ndione, L. Y. Lim, D. Sokaras, T. C. Weng, A. R. Nagaraja, A. G. Karydas, J. D. Perkins, et al. 2014. "Self-Doping and Electrical Conductivity in Spinel Oxides: Experimental Validation of Doping Rules." Y Chemistry of Materials 26: 1867–1873. DOI: 10.1021/cm404031k.

Strasser, P., S. Koh, T. Anniyev, J. Greeley, K. More, C. Yu, Z. Liu, et al. 2010. "Lattice-strain control of exceptional activity in dealloyed fuel cell catalysts." Nature Chemistry 2: 454–460.

Unger , E. L., A. R. Bowring, C. J. Tassone, V. L. Pool, A. Gold-Parker, R. Cheacharoen, K. H. Stone, E. T. Hoke, M. F. Toney, and M. D. McGehee. 2014. "Chloride in Lead Chloride-Derived Organo-Metal Halides for Perovskite-Absorber Solar Cells." Chem. Mater. 26: 7158–7165. DOI: 10.1021/cm503828b.

Synergistic Activities

  • Developed and employed novel characterization methods for probing materials structure, properties, and growth (for the Center for Inverse Design and Center for Next Generation Materials by Design EFRCs)
  • Panel lead for DOE Basic Research Needs for Energy Storage, 2017.
  • Co-organized "SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering: Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences," at SSRL, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012; 2014; 2016; Co-organized Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science 5, April 2012
  • Member of External Advisory Board of Center for Electrochemical Energy Storage Energy Frontier Research Center, 2013 - present.
  • Co-chaired Materials Research Society Symposium on "Materials in Transition ─Insights from Synchrotron and Neutron Sources," Boston, MA, 2007

Zeev Valy Vardeny

CHOISE Role: Co-Lead, Thrust 2: Controlling Spin Degrees of Freedom

Current Affiliation: University of Utah

Education and Training

  • Postdoctoral Associate, Electrical Engineering, Brown University, 1979-1981
  • Ph.D., Physics of Condensed Matter, The Technion, 1979
  • B.Sc. Cum Laude, Physics, The Technion, 1969

Research and Professional Experience

  • Distinguished Professor of Physics, University of Utah, 2002–
  • Director, John Dixon Laser Institute, University of Utah, 2005–
  • Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering and MS&E Departments, 2011–
  • Lady Davis Distinguished Professor, Technion, 2004–2005 and 2009
  • Chair, Physics Department, University of Utah, 1997–2003
  • Professor of Physics, Physics Department, University of Utah, 1987–2002
  • Associate Professor, Physics Department, Technion, 1984–1987
  • Senior Lecturer, Physics Department, Technion, 1982–1984
  • Research Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering, Brown University, 1981–1982


Amerling, Eric, Sangita Baniya, Evan Lafalce, Chuang Zhang, Zeev Valy Vardeny, and Luisa Whittaker-Brooks. 2017. "Electroabsorption spectroscopy studies of (C4H9NH3)2PbI4 organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite multiple quantum-wells." Jour. of Physical Chemistry Letters
8: 4557–4564. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b01741.

Lafalce, E., C. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. V. Vardeny. 2016. "On the role of intrinsic ions accumulation in the photocurrent and photo-capacitive responses of MAPbBr3 photodetectors." ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 8 (51): 35447. 10.1021/acsami.6b11925.

Lafalce, E., C. Zhang, Y. Zhai, D. Sun and Z. V. Vardeny. 2016. "Reduced lasing thresholds, enhanced emission and increased optical gain of nano-crystalline MAPbBr3 films via anti-solvent treatment." J. Appl. Phys. 120: 143101. doi: 10.1063/1.4964417 2016.

Nguyen, T. D., E. Ehrenfreund, and Z. V. Vardeny. 2012. "Spin-polarized organic light emitting diode based on a novel bipolar spin-valve." Science 337: 204.

Odenthal, P., W. Talmadge, N. Gundlach, R. Wang, C. Zhang, D. Sun, Z. G. Yu, Z. V. Vardeny and Y. S. Li. 2017. "Spin-polarized exciton quantum beating in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites." Nature Physics 29 (May).

Sheng, C. X., Chuang Zhang, Yaxin Zhai, Kamil Mielczarek, Weiwei Wang, Wanli Ma, Anvar Zakhidov, and Z. Valy Vardeny. 2015. "Excitons versus Free Carriers Photogeneration in Organometal Trihalide Perovskites Probed by Broadband Ultrafast Polarization Memory Dynamics." Phys. Rev. Lett. 114: 116601. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.116601.

Sun, D., K. J. van Schooten, H. Malissa, M. Kavand, C. Zhang, C. Boehme, and Z. V. Vardeny. 2016. "Inverse spin Hall effect from pulsed spin current in organic semiconductors with tunable spin-orbit coupling." Nature Materials 15 (April): 863.

Zhai, Yaxin, S. Baniya, C. Zhang, C.-X. Sheng, E. Ehrenfreund, and Z. V. Vardeny. 2017. "Giant Rashba-Splitting in 2D organic-inorganic halide perovskites measured by transient spectroscopies." Science Advances 3: e1700704.

Zhang, C., D. Sun, C-X. Sheng, Y. Zhai, K. Mielczarek, A. Zakhidov, and Z. V. Vardeny. 2015. "Magnetic field effects in hybrid perovskite devices." Nature Physics 11: 427.

Zhang, Chuang, Dali Sun, Xiaojie Liu, Chuan-Xiang Sheng and Zeev Valy Vardeny. 2017. "Temperature-Dependent Electric Field Poling Effects in CH3NH3PbI3 Optoelectronic Devices." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 8: 1429. 10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b00353.

Select Awards/Honors

  • Fellow, American Physical Society, 1994–
  • Recipient of Utah Governor's Medal for Science and Technology, 2005–
  • Recipient of the APS Frank Isakson Prize for Optical Effects in Solids, 2008–
  • Recipient of the Rosenblatt Award for Excellence in Teaching, Research
    & Administration at the University of Utah, 2009
  • Inaugural Editor, Nature Communications, 2010–2016

Yanfa Yan

CHOISE Role: Co-Lead, Thrust 3: Controlling Light/Matter Interaction

Current Affiliation: University of Toledo

Education and Training

  • Postdoctoral, Electron Microscopy at the Atomic-Scale, Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Ph.D./M.S./B.S., Physics, Wuhan University, 1993/1990/1987

Research and Professional Experience

  • Ohio Research Scholar Chair/Professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2011–
  • Principal Scientist, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2009–2011
    • Defects in photovoltaic materials
  • Senior Scientist, NREL, 1999–2009
    • Structural and electronic properties of photovoltaic materials


Ke, W., G. Fang, Q. Liu, L. Xiong, P. Qin, H. Tao, J. Wang, et al. 2015. "Low-temperature solution-processed tin oxide as an alternative electron transporting layer for efficient perovskite solar cells." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137: 6730–6733.

Liao, W., D. Zhao, Y. Yu, C. R. Grice, C. Wang, A. J. Cimaroli, P. Schulz, et al. 2016. "Lead-Free Inverted Planar Formamidinium Tin Triiodide Perovskite Solar Cells Achieving Power Conversion Efficiencies up to 6.22%." Adv. Mater. 10: 1602992.

Liao, W., D. Zhao, Y. Yu, N. Shrestha, K. Ghimire, C. R. Grice, and C. Wang. 2016. "Fabrication of Efficient Low-Bandgap Perovskite Solar Cells by Combining Formamidinium Tin Iodide with Methylammo-nium Lead Iodide." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138: 12360–12363.

Wang, W., D. Zhao, F. Zhang, L. Li, M. Du, C. Wang, Y. Yu, et al. 2017. "Highly sensitive low-bandgap perovskite photodetectors with response from ultraviolet to the near-infrared region." Adv. Funct. Mater. 10: 1703953.

Xiao, Z., K. Z. Du, W. Meng, J. Wang, D. B. Mitzi, and Y. Yan. 2017. "Intrinsic instability of Cs2In(I)M(III)X6 (M= Bi, Sb; X = Halogen) double perovskites: A combined density-functional theory and experimental study." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139: 6054–6057.

Xiao, Z., W. Meng, J. Wang, and Y. Yan. 2016. "Thermodynamic Stability and Defect Chemistry of Bismuth-Based Lead-Free Double Perovskites." ChemSusChem 9: 2628–2633.

Xiao, Z., W. Meng, J. Wang, D. Mitzi, and Y. Yan. 2017. "Searching for promising new perovskite-based photovoltaic absorbers: the importance of electronic dimensionality." Materials Horizon 4: 206–216.

Xiao, Zewen, Weiwei Meng, Jianbo Wang, and Yanfa Yan. 2016. "Defect properties of the two-dimensional (CH3NH3)2Pb(SCN)2I2 perovskite: a density-functional theory study." Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18: 25786–25790.

You, Y., W. Q. Liao, D. Zhao, H. Y. Ye, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhou, X. Niu, et al. 2017. "An organic-inorganic perovskite ferroelectric with large piezoelectric response." Science 357: 306–309.

Zhao, D., Y. Yu, C. Wang, W. Liao, N. Shrestha, C. R. Grice, A. J. Cimaroli, et al. 2017. "Low-bandgap mixed tin–lead iodide perovskite absorbers with long carrier lifetimes for all-perovskite tandem solar cells." Nature Energy 2: 17018.


American Physical Society Fellow, 2011

R&D 100 Award, 2011

NREL President's Award, 2014 and 2017

NREL Outstanding Performance Award, 2002

U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Young Investigator Award, 2001

Yong Yan

CHOISE Role: Key Participant

Current Affiliation: San Diego State University

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., Inorganic Chemistry, Tulane University, 2008-2012
  • B.S., Chemistry, Wuhan University, 2002-2006
  • Postdoctoral Associate, Princeton University, 2012-2014
  • Postdoctoral Associate, NREL, 2014-2016                   

Research and Professional Experience

  • Assistant Professor, San Diego State University, Inorganic Chemistry, 2017–
  • Assistant Professor, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2016–2017
    • Design and development of cost-effective and highly efficient photoactive materials for fundamental organic synthesis.


Gu, J.; Yan, Y. ; Young, J.; Neale, N.; Turner, J. "A Molecular Cobalt Catalyst Architected and TiO2 Stabilized p-GaInP2 Photoelectrode For High Efficient Water Reduction" Nature Materials, 2016, 15, 456-460 (contribute equally)

Gu, J.; Yan, Y.; Krizan, J. W.; Gibson ,Q. D.; Detweiler, Z. M.; Cava, R. J.; Bocarsly, A.B. "p-Type CuRhO2 as a Self-Healing Photoelectrode for Water Reduction under Visible Light" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 830 (contribute equally)

Tyson, T.; W Gao; YS Chen; S Ghose; Yan, Y "Large Thermal Motion in Halide Perovskites" Scientific Reports, 2017, 7, 9401

Wang, L.; Wang, H.; Wagner, M.; Yan, Y.; Jakob, D. and Xu, X. "Simultaneous Infrared and Mechanical Nanoscopy via Laser-Synchronized Peak Force Tapping" Science Advances, 2017, 3, 1700255

White, J.; Baruch, M.; Pander III, J.; Hu ,Y.; Fortmeyer, I.; Gu, J.; Yan, Y.; Shaw, T.;  Abelev, E.; Bocarsly, A. "Light-Driven Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: Photocatalysts and Photoelectrodes" Chem. Rev., 2015, 115, 12888

Yan, Y.; Crisp, R.; Gu, J.; Pach, G.; Chernomordik, B.; Turner, J. A.; Beard, M. C. "Multiple exciton generation for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution reactions with quantum yields exceeding 100%" Nature Energy, 2017, 2, 17052

Yang, Y.; Yang, M.; Moore, D.; Yan, Y.; Zhu, K.; Beard, M. C.; "Surfaces Limit Carrier Lifetime in Lead Iodide Perovskite Films" Nature Energy 2017, 2, 16207

Yang, Y.; Yan, Y.; Choi, S.; Zhu, K.; Beard, M.; "Low Surface Recombination Velocity in Solution Grown CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Single Crystal" Nature Comm. 2015, 6, 7961.

Yan, Y.; Zeitler, E. L.; Gu, J.; Hu, Y.; Bocarsly, A.B. "Electrochemistry of Aqueous Pyridinium: Exploration of a Key Aspect of Electrocatalytic Reduction of CO2 to Methanol" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 14020

Yan, Y.; Lee, J.; DA Ruddy "Structure–Function Relationships for Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation by Molecular [Mn12O12] Clusters" Inorganic Chemistry 2015, 54, 4550–4555

Synergistic Activities

  • NSF panel reviewer, 2017
  • Symposium organizer for 2018 ACS national meeting in Boston
  • Program chair, ACS national meeting
  • Reviewer for prestigious academic journals including: J. Am. Chem. Soc.; Energy Env. Sci.; ACS Catalysis; Green Chemistry; J. Materials Chemistry, J. Power Sources et al.
  • NSF REU student advisor at NJIT in summer 2017 and as American Chemical Society (ACS) SEED high school student program advisor.  

Wei You

CHOISE Role: Key Participant

Current Affiliation: University of North Carolina

Education and Training

  • Postdoctoral, Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 2006
  • Ph.D., Organic/Polymer Chemistry, University of Chicago, 2004
  • B.S., Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, 1999

Research and Professional Experience

  • Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, 2017–
  • Associate Professor of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, 2012–2017
  • Assistant Professor of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, 2006–2012
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, Stanford University, 2004–2006


Bauer, Nicole, Qianqian Zhang, Jingbo Zhao, Long Ye, Joo-Hyun Kim, Iordania Constantinou, Liang Yan, et al. 2017. "Comparing non-fullerene acceptors with fullerene in polymer solar cells: a case study with FTAZ and PyCNTAZ." J. Mater. Chem. A 5: 4886. (DOI: 10.1039/c6ta10450a).

Wang, Jiayu, Wei Wang, Xiaohui Wang, Yang Wu, Qianqian Zhang, Cenqi Yan, Wei Ma, Wei You, and Xiaowei Zhan. 2017. "Enhancing Performance of Nonfullerene Acceptors via Side-Chain Conjugation Strategy." Adv. Mater. 1702125. (DOI: 10.1002/adma.201702125).

Zhang, Qianqian, Liang Yan, Xuechen Jiao, Zhengxing Peng, Shubin Liu, Jeromy James Rech, Erik Klump, Harald Ade, Franky So, and Wei You. 2017. "Fluorinated Thiophene Units Improve Photovoltaic Device Performance of Donor−Acceptor Copolymers." Chem. Mater. 29: 5990–6002. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b01683).

Zhang, Qianqian, Mary Allison Kelly, Nicole Bauer, and Wei You. 2017. "The Curious Case of Fluorination of Conjugated Polymers for Solar Cells." Acc. Chem. Res. 50: 2401–2409. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00326).

Zhao, Fuwen, Shuixing Dai, Yang Wu, Qianqian Zhang, Jiayu Wang, Li Jiang, Qidan Ling, et al. 2017. "Single-Junction Binary-Blend Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells with 12.1% Efficiency." Adv. Mater. 1700144. (DOI: 10.1002/adma.201700144).

Ghasemi, Masoud, Long Ye, Qianqian Zhang, Liang Yan, Joo-Hyun Kim, Omar Awartani, Wei You, Abay Gadisa, and Harald Ade. 2017. "Panchromatic Sequentially Cast Ternary Polymer Solar Cells." Adv. Mater. 29: 1604603.Lu, Luyao, Mary Allison Kelly, Wei You, and Luping Yu. 2015. "Status and prospects for ternary organic photovoltaics." Nature Photon. 9: 491-500. (DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2015.128).

Qianqian Zhang, Mary Allison Kelly, Adrian Hunt, Harald Ade, and Wei You. 2016. "Comparative Photovoltaic Study of Physical Blending of Two Donor−Acceptor Polymers with the Chemical Blending of the Respective Moieties." Macromolecules 49: 2533–2540. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.5b02586).

Tumbleston, John R., Brian A. Collins, Liqiang Yang, Andrew C. Stuart, Eliot Gann, Wei Ma, Wei You, and Harald Ade. 2014. "The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells." Nature Photon. 8: 385–391. (DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.55).

Xiao, Shengqiang, Qianqian Zhang, and Wei You. 2017. "Molecular Engineering of Conjugated Polymers for Solar Cells: An Updated Report." Adv. Mater. 1601391. (DOI: 10.1002/adma.201601391).

Synergistic Activities

  • Editorial Advisory Board, Macromolecules (American Chemical Society)
  • Associate Editor, Polymer Chemistry (Royal Society of Chemistry)
  • Co-Chair, NSF/ONR Workshop on Next Generation Organic Solar Cells; MRS Spring 2012 Meeting, Symposium Z; MRS Spring 2008 Meeting Symposium AA
  • Panelist, NSF, January 2016, March 2015, September 2014, March 2014, April 2013, March 2013, April 2012, October 2011, March 2010, March 2009, February 2009, November 2007
  • Undergraduate research experience: 10 students in the past 3 years (total up to date: 26)

Kai Zhu

CHOISE Role: Co-Lead, Thrust 4: Harnessing Charge-Carrier Degrees of Freedom; and Outreach Coordinator

Current Affiliation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Education and Training

  • Ph.D., Physics, Syracuse University, 2003
  • M.S., Computer Engineering, Syracuse University, 2002
  • M.S., Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 1998
  • B.E., Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 1995

Research and Professional Experience

  • Staff Scientist, NREL, 2007–

Research on perovskite solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, and supercapacitors for energy storage. Research involves materials synthesis and device fabrication; understanding of charge transport and its relationship to electrode morphology; device/electrode characterization and modeling.

  • Postdoctoral Researcher, NREL, 20042007

Research on charge-transport and interfacial charge-transfer kinetics in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  • Postdoctoral Research Associate, Kansas State University, 20032004

Research on transport properties in III-Nitride wide-bandgap high-power light emitting diodes.


Yang, M.; Li, Z.; Reese, M. O.; Reid, O. G.; Kim, D. H.; Siol, S.; Klein, T. R.; Yan, Y.; Berry, J. J.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Zhu, K. "Perovskite ink with wide processing window for scalable high-efficiency solar cells", Nature Energy 2017, 2, 17038. doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.38

Li, Z.; Xiao, C.; Yang, Y.; Harvey, S. P.; Kim, D. H.; Christians, J. A.; Yang, M.; Schulz, P.; Nanayakkara, S. U.; Jiang, C.-S.; Luther, J. M.; Berry, J. J.; Beard, M. C.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Zhu, K. "Extrinsic ion migration in perovskite solar cells", Energy & Environ. Sci. 2017, 10, 1234. doi:10.1039/C7EE00358G

Li, Z.; Tinkham, J.; Schulz, P.; Yang, M.; Kim, D. H.; Berry, J.; Sellinger, A.; Zhu, K. "Acid Additives Enhancing the Conductivity of Spiro-OMeTAD Toward High-Efficiency and Hysteresis-Less Planar Perovskite Solar Cells", Adv. Energy Mater. 2017, 7, 1601451. doi:10.1002/aenm.201601451

Kim, D. H.; Park, J.; Li, Z.; Yang, M.; Park, J.-S.; Park, I. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Berry, J. J.; Rumbles, G.; Zhu, K. "300% Enhancement of Carrier Mobility in Uniaxial-Oriented Perovskite Films Formed by Topotactic-Oriented Attachment", Adv. Mater. 2017, 29, 1606831. doi:10.1002/adma.201606831

Zhao, Y. X.; Zhu, K. "Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications", Chem. Soc. Rev. 2016, 45, 655-689. doi:10.1039/C4CS00458B

Park, N.-G.; Grätzel, M., Miyasaka, T., Zhu, K., Emery, K. "Towards stable and commercially available perovskite solar cells", Nature Energy 2016, 1, 16152. doi:10.1038/nenergy.2016.152

Li, Z.; Yang, M. J.; Park, J. S.; Wei, S. H.; Berry, J. J.; Zhu, K. "Stabilizing Perovskite Structures by Tuning Tolerance Factor: Formation of Formamidinium and Cesium Lead Iodide Solid-State Alloys", Chem. Mater. 2016, 28, 284-292. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b04107

Aguiar, J. A.; Wozny, S.; Holesinger, T. G.; Aoki, T.; Patel, M. K.; Yang, M. J.; Berry, J. J.; Al-Jassim, M.; Zhou, W. L.; Zhu, K. "In situ investigation of the formation and metastability of formamidinium lead tri-iodide perovskite solar cells", Energy Environ. Sci. 2016, 9, 2372-2382. doi:10.1039/C6EE01079B

Yang, M. J.; Zhang, T. Y.; Schulz, P.; Li, Z.; Li, G.; Kim, D. H.; Guo, N. J.; Berry, J. J.; Zhu, K.; Zhao, Y. X. "Facile fabrication of large-grain CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx films for high-efficiency solar cells via CH3NH3Br-selective Ostwald ripening", Nat. Commun. 2016, 7, 12305-12305. doi:10.1038/ncomms12305

Yang, M.; Zhou, Y.; Zeng, Y.; Jiang, C.-S.; Padture, N. P.; Zhu, K. "Square-Centimeter Solution-Processed Planar CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency Exceeding 15%", Adv. Mater. 2015, 27, 6363–6370. doi:10.1002/adma.201502586


Oriented Nanotube Electrodes for Lithium Ion Batteries and Supercapcitors, US Patent, 8,389,157

Methods for Producing Single Crystal Mixed Halide Perovskites, US Patent, 9,701,696


  • NREL Chairman's Award, 2017
  • Chemistry of Materials Lectureship and Best Paper Award, 2017
  • NREL Staff Award for the perovskite team with excellent accomplishments on perovskite research, 2015
  • NREL President's Award for outstanding research efforts that enabled ancillary research by providing a capability to make a novel solar absorber material at high efficiency, 2014

Synergistic Activities

  • Journal Reviewer (Science, Nature, Nature Energy, Nature Photonics, Nature Chemistry, Nature Communications, Nature Reviews Chemistry, Nature Reviews Materials, ACS Nano, Nano Letters, ACS Energy Letters, Chemistry of Materials, JPCL, Advanced Materials, Advanced Energy Materials, Energy & Environmental Science, Joule)
  • Proposal Reviewer (DOE, Basic Energy Sciences, NSF)
  • Symposium Organizer (MRS national meetings)